Cocoa Farming and Processing Business Plan in Nigeria
Our sample Cocoa farming and processing business plan in Nigeria can be used to access bank loans, proposal writing, grant applications. Furthermore,this article below will help you weather you want to learn how to start cocoa business in Nigeria with a step by step guide on starting a cocoa plantation in Nigeria.
Also Read: Maize Farming Business Plan in Nigeria
To get your own Cocoa farming and processing business plan in Nigeria, pay N50,000 to:
BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC
ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122
After payment, text your full name, email address and title (cocoa plantation business plan pdf) to 07033378184. Your business plan will be sent to your email within 15 minutes.
Looking at the agribusiness sector, not just in Nigeria, but the world over, you will realize that one of the major cash crops is cocoa. As a matter of fact it is recognized globally as one of the most economically important agricultural products as it provides such a huge business investment opportunity to anyone who cares to put their money and effort into its production. On the international market, cocoa is one of the fastest selling products and the fastest selling agricultural product, being that it widely consumed since it is a major raw material for most of our beverages asides other manufactured goods. One major advantage that accrues to farming cocoa is that once the farmer can bear the pains of growing the crop to maturity, he will enjoy the luxury of reaping the dividends for several years without stress since cocoa is a perennial crop. It has the ability to keep yielding fruits for a very long time. It is no secret that there will be no chocolate or cholate drink without the cultivation of cocoa, it is a major raw material for confectionary and beverage industries. Widely recognized as the gold mine of the agriculture industry, cocoa is sold all over the world to satisfy the huge demand that is constantly on the rise.
When we narrow our focus to the Nigerian economy however, it becomes evident and ever so glaring that the viability of cocoa cultivation has been underutilized and all but completely neglected, especially since the discovery of crude oil. Prior to the oil boom, cocoa was recognized as one of the main stays of the Nigerian economy, one of the country’s major export product which fetched huge amounts yearly as revenue to aid the economy. This however became mare fables as more and more effort and investment went into drilling, producing and exporting crude oil and its products. Though cocoa farming might m=not be close to its peak in Nigeria yet any farmer who decides to look closely at the sector will realize the boundless opportunities that lie in cocoa farming. There is a lot of money to be made from cocoa farming and presently the sector seems totally untapped and underutilized.
Agriculture in Nigeria
You can hardly discuss cocoa farming in Nigeria without making reference to the country’s overall attitude to farming and how involved her population is with agricultural practices. To this end, let us briefly take a look at agriculture in Nigeria. Statistics show us that at least 70% of the total Nigerian population is in one way or the other involved in agricultural activities, whether crop or livestock farming. Resulting from this percentage is a contribution of about 41% of GDP to the Nigerian economy. Since the coming to power of the present government there has been a call for Nigerians to return to the farm as it will help reduce the problem of poor feeding and malnutrition in the country while providing a sustainable source of income. Thus farming has become one of the most successful businesses to venture into, after all who can survive without food, if you can produce something to eat then you can make money from it because there will always be someone ready to buy. Presently the number of farmers and the amount of products churned out from their farms is still unable to satisfy the huge Nigerian population which has resulted in the government importing most agricultural products. This can turn around if more and more people are involved in agriculture.
I am almost certain that with you reading the previous paragraph you are beginning to realize a major problem which just a little effort from your end can solve while it can be an opportunity to make some good income for you. Yes, one major way to start is to consider cocoa farming, this way you would not just be producing for the Nigerian public, you will be producing for other nations of the world. Take this into consideration as you read through this article.
Brief history of cocoa farming in Nigeria
History has it that cocoa farming was introduced to Africa, precisely the Gulf of Guinea by the Portuguese in the nineteenth century and then from there it spread to other parts of Africa, including Nigeria. By the 1870s Nigeria had started to cultivate cocoa, it began around the Calabar and Bonny areas, however the yield was poor as those areas were not well suited for cocoa cultivation. By the 1880s the knowledge of cocoa farming had spread to the western part of Nigeria and farms were established in Lagos, Agege and Otta. At this point the farming of cocoa had extremely spread throughout the south western region of Nigeria that by the 1890s most cocoa farmers had started planting cocoa in uncultivated forests.
By the 1950s there were two major varieties of cocoa nuts available, one was imported from Trinidad. This variety was reddish in color. The second variety which was imported from the Amazon Basin in Brazil was usually green and then turned yellow when it gets ripe. Presently worldwide Ivory Coast and Indonesia are the largest producers of cocoa while Nigeria comes in closely at third position. Africa as a continent produces a large amount of cocoa yearly, yet researchers believe that the cocoa producing capacity of the continent compared to what it is producing is way underutilized. In Nigeria for instance, there are several hectares of lands that are viable for cocoa farming but are wasting away from sheer neglect. For you reading this article, this may be a great opportunity beckoning, consider cocoa farming and you might just be the next big thing to happen to Africa’s economy.
What to do in setting up your own cocoa farm
Of course if you are going to enjoy the cocoa business, it is imperative that you own your own farm land, this is not to say that farming cocoa is the only way you can be involved in the business, please do not get me wrong. In getting a farm land you should firstly study what kind of attributes such a land should possess. This will assist in narrowing your options to getting a land with the appropriate rainfall and climate conditions, as well as the right price for you. Note that cocoa seeds at the tender stage can be quite sensitive, without the right nurturing and attention they can die very fast. A major reason why cocoa farmers of yesteryears used uncultivated forests was the forest cover which was simply perfect for protecting the crops from direct sunlight. Cocoa crops will always need a cover from direct sunlight, so when getting a land for your cultivation please ensure this is one of your major considerations. Ideally, for optimal production of cocoa, the area is required to have between 21 to 23 degrees Celsius temperature and an average of between 1000 and 2500mm of rainfall yearly.
You will definitely need to get seeds for your farm, in Nigeria the most recognized source of viable cocoa seeds is the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) which is located in Ibadan. Extensive research on cocoa farming is also being carried out by the institute and you should be able to get expert advice from the researchers on site on how best to cultivate cocoa, what resources you need and what methods to employ. Asides the IITA you can also buy from the local market, even though I do not advise this as you are not sure of the quality of seeds being sold. The best time for planting of the cocoa seeds is just at the beginning of the rainy season which happens to fall between the months of April and May in most parts of the country. At this point, I will like to advise that before venturing into cocoa farming ensure that you carry out as much research about the crop and its cultivation as possible. The venture can be quite capital intensive and you would not want to lose your hard earned capital carrying out the wrong processes, ensure you seek the advice of a professional in the cocoa field before venturing out.
What climatic conditions best suit cocoa farming?
I know I have stated a little about this earlier but permit me to put this here just so you can fully grasp the information. Most of the world powers in cocoa production today lie between 10N and 10S of the equator, this just makes it evident the kind of crop cocoa is, it is recognized as a tropical crop. Research has stated that cocoa responds very well to climates with not to high temperatures, a minimum of 18 to 21 degrees Celsius and a maximum of 31 to 33 degrees Celsius.
Asides this, note that cocoa will not do well in areas lacking adequate rainfall, cocoa is very sensitive to lack of water. For optimal performance of the crop, the rainfall must not be below 1500mm per year.
Best soil condition for cocoa production
This aspect is very important, if you are going to make the best of your cocoa farming, it is key you pay great attention to this segment of the article. Cocoa needs a land with abundance of nutrients. The soil must also be strong enough to hold trees, as you know it, cocoa is not just a plant, it grows to become a tree. So the soil must have the capacity to allow the cocoa plants develop a strong root system. Aides these, the soil must have good water retention capacity as well as a good drainage system, this is because cocoa plants are very sensitive to low water supply. Low water supply could destroy your whole farm and plunge all your efforts and capital into oblivion.
The soil should enriched in organic matter and it should also have all the necessary nutrients suitable for optimal plant growth. The soil should have a pH of between 5.0 and 7.5. Soils proposed for cocoa cultivation should possess certain anionic and cationic balances. The exchangeable bases present in the soil should amount to at least 35% of the total cation exchange capacity (CEC), a deviation from this could mean that nutritional problems are bound to occur. The recommended total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratio should be around 1.5 for optimal performance of the crop.
The different cocoa varieties available
- This variety of cocoa was majorly cultivated in the eighteenth century. Criollo is still largely regarded as a luxury cocoa, a reason for this could be that Criollo is a more susceptible variety of cocoa to various diseases the others. For this reason, the production of Criollo is quite expensive.
- This variety of cocoa is largely considered to be a father or ancestor of all cocoa plants. Up to 80% of the world’s cocoa cultivation is linked to the Forastero cocoa. A major feature of Forastero is it is a less aromatic cocoa flavour, this attribute in some cases can make it bitter. Forastero can be easily found in Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria.
- This variety of cocoa is is more of a hybrid of Criollo and Forastero. The Trinitario planting originated from Trinidad and later gradually spread to Papua New Guinea, Java, Sri Lanka, Samoa, Cameroon and Ecuador. It is recognized as the best combination of luxury cocoa flavour and its resistance to disease. It has a great cocoa taste which is only a little bit bitter.
Recognized cocoa breeding methods
As stated earlier, cocoa trees are grown from planting seeds. If taken from under ripe pods, they have the capacity to produce very good plants.
- Tree cuttings should be taken with five leaves and at least two buds. Then the leaves should be cut in half and placed in a pot until the roots appear.
- A bud should be cut from a tree and placed under another tree. The budding patch should be waxed to prevent moisture loss. The bud can be cut off when it starts growing under the old tree.
In conclusion, cocoa farming is one of the most profitable branches of farming presently, all you need to do is tap into the boundless opportunities available. The market is huge both within and outside the country and there are several methods of selling off your produce. It just requires a lot of diligence and some good effort and you will definitely be smiling to the bank very soon.
Get your Cocoa farming and processing business plan in Nigeria today.
To order the business plan, pay N50, 000 to:
BANK NAME: GUARANTY TRUST BANK (GTB)
ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 0044056891
BANK NAME: FIRST BANK PLC
ACCOUNT NAME: CHIBUZOR TOCHI ONYEMENAM
ACCOUNT NUMBER: 3066880122
After payment, send your full name, email address and topic (i.e. cocoa plantation business plan pdf) to 07033378184. Your business plan will be sent to your email within 15 minutes.
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